Hydroceles occur when fluid fills a sac in the scrotum of the penis (in the "inguinal canal"). About 10 in 100 male infants have a hydrocele at birth. Hydroceles can also develop with swelling or injury of the scrotum.
An inguinal hernia occurs if a small part of the intestine drops into the scrotum with the testes. The intestine can form a lump in the scrotum. There are 2 kinds of inguinal hernias. Indirect inguinal hernias occur in about 1 in 100 baby boys and the rate is higher in premature infants. Direct inguinal hernias are fairly common in older adult males.
Hydroceles and inguinal hernias can become a problem for males. Females do not get hydroceles, but they can get hernias. Ten times more males get hernias than females.
Cystoscopy, or cystourethroscopy, is a procedure that lets a urologist view the inside of the bladder and urethra in detail.
It is often used to find causes of bleeding or blockage, or any abnormalities of the bladder and its lining.
Cystoscopy is most often done as an outpatient procedure. Before the procedure you will empty your bladder. Then you will be placed on an exam table. A liquid or gel local anesthetic may be used on your urethra. The average cystoscopy takes about 5 to 10 minutes.
The cystoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. The cystoscope is a thin, lighted tube with lenses. Most often it is bendable, but some models are rigid. Water or saline is infused through the cystoscope into the bladder. As the fluid fills the bladder, the bladder wall is stretched so the urologist can see clearly.
The bladder wall should appear smooth, and the bladder should be normal size, shape and position. There should not be any blockages. If any tissue appears abnormal, the cystoscope can be used to remove a small sample.
After the cystoscope is removed, your urethra may be sore and you may have a burning feeling for up to 48 hours. You may find some blood in your urine at first, but this should go away within 12 to 24 hours. If you still have pain, or if you get a fever or your urine is bright red, tell your health care provider.
For a conventional vasectomy, 1 or 2 small cuts are made in the skin of the scrotum to reach the vas deferens. The vas deferens is cut and a small piece may be removed, leaving a short gap between the 2 ends. Next, the urologist may sear the ends of the vas, and then tie the cut ends with a suture. These steps are then repeated on the other vas, either through the same cut or through a new one. The scrotal cuts may be closed with dissolvable stitches or allowed to close on their own.
Sperm adds very little to the semen volume, so you shouldn't notice any change in your ejaculate after vasectomy. Your partner may sometimes be able to feel the vasectomy site. This is particularly true if you have developed a granuloma.
Ejaculation and orgasm are usually not affected by vasectomy. The special case is the rare man who has developed post-vasectomy pain syndrome.
An uncomplicated vasectomy can't cause impotence.
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